ICHI LINGUISTIC GEOMETRY AND EVOLUTION

Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on

Theoretical Physics & National Development, 5-8 July, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria

Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on

Theoretical Physics & National Development, 5-8 July, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria

A Commentary on They Lived Before Adam

Alexander O.E. Animalu1 and Catherine Acholonu2

1Emeritus Professor of Physics & Adjunct Professor,

Institute of African Studies, Universirty of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

2Catherine Acholonu Research Centre, Abuja, Nigeria:

Alexander O.E. Animalu1 and Catherine Acholonu2

1Emeritus Professor of Physics & Adjunct Professor,

Institute of African Studies, Universirty of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

2Catherine Acholonu Research Centre, Abuja, Nigeria:

Our task in this paper is to characterize this geometric framework of Ichi writing and evolution into modern alphabet systems of various languages

We wish in this article to develop “Ichi Linguistic geometry and evolution” on the basis of the assertion on p.128 of Acholonu‟s book entitled They Lived Before Adam (hereunder referred to as TLBA) that "Eve or Shi in [2-dimensional (2D)] geometry meant the side of a square or triangle". In 3D the triangle is replaced by the tetrahedron as the simplest of the 5 Pythagorean solids and its primitive geometric elements (points: lines:planes) define an ichi ratio (4:6:4) of symbolic “Eve” (cf Dan Brown‟s The Da Vinci Code (5:8:5) for a pyramid). Apparently, Ichi writing began with drawing lines to represent a (dual) pair of “N” in three dimensional (3D) space whose nesting gives the tetrahedron as shown in Fig.1.

Fig. 1:Nesting of two N’s in 3D to form a tetrahedron (“light”).

In quantum physics, this geometry characterizes the process, (proton+antiproton = light), discussed in chapter 4 of Animalu & Umezinwa‟s book, From African Symbols to Physics (1988). It will be proved in Sec. 4 of this paper that the evolution (motion in time) of this tetrahedron and its dual generates the X-ichi scarification pattern (see coverpage) invented by the divine feminine (“Eve”), a heathen “goddess” progenitor of an African race of “dwarf” ( Fig.2a).

Fig. 2a: Tetrahedron-Ichi initiated by “Eve”

The celebrated Nigerian poet, Christopher Okigbo (1932-1967)‟[, in his poem entitled Watermaid: And the Waves Escort Her and the artist, Obiora Udechukwu in his homage to Okigbo capture the “Eternal Day” of “Eve” as shown in Fig. 2b.

Our task in this paper is to characterize this geometric framework of Ichi writing and evolution into modern alphabet systems of various languages.

2. ICHI WRITING CODE

As stated on p. 155 of TLBD “The Nag Hammadi says that „the entities Father, Mother and Child exist as perceptible speech‟ having within it three „aspects, three powers, and three names abiding in three NNN, three quadrangles, secretly in ineffable silence‟ [of Ikom stone carving(?) or mathematically (Fig. 3a) in the solid geometry of a (dual) pair of tetrahedron & symbolized (p.177 of TLBD) on a Goddess (Fig.3b).

Fig. 3a: The 3D nesting of 3N’s into a (dual) pair of tetrahedra with a common triangular base having ichi geometric ratio (points:lines:planes) =(5:9:6).

Fig. 3b: Relation of the tetrahedra to the three symbols, Palm frond V-ichi Quadrangles & Double concentric circles (see Fig.9 below & p.177, TLBA).

Evolution of the tetrahedron and its dual lead to creation of the pyramid symbolized by its 2D “shadow” (pentagon, in Fig.4a) or alternatively by its 3D form (octahedron Fig.4b) equivalent to 3 rectangles & a cross as in Ichi

Fig. 4a: Construction of the pyramid from two tetrahedra (above) &the pre-Renaissance Europe pentagon symbol of “Adam” as “shadow” of the pyramid.

Fig. 4b: Building of octahedron from a pair of pyramids from 3 quadrangles (external) and a cross (within) transcending ichi (Umudioka) design on Igbo-Ukwu Bronze (p.82 & 104-6, TLBA).

We have stated (as in Chapter 5 TLBA) that inasmuch as the lines of the solid geometry of the tetrahedron and the octahedron (dual of a cube in Fig.5a) generate perceptible speech symbols such as NNN, they provided the key to the correlation of the linear form of stone column writing of Mega-igbo with the Ogam code in the British Isles. The number of lines in a cluster and their positions relative to the stem (as in Fig.5b) form the individual letters of the Ogam Alphabet. Intriguingly in 3D geometry, the sample 20 Igbo column writing and 20 Ogam alphabets correspond to the number of the primitive elements (points+lines+planes) = 5+9+6 =20 of the two tetrahedral on common base (Fig.5a) ; for the octahedron (two pyramids on common base) the number is 6+12+8=26 which is the same for a cube (its dual in 3D), 8+12+6=26. These provide mathematical closure test of alphabet systems!

Fig.5a: Association of number of Ogam Alphabets with number of points, lines & planes of geometric objects.

Fig.5b( i) 20 Igbo column writing (excluding the single 5 strokes symbol); and (ii) 20 Ogam Alphabet Codes(with inconsistent(?) inclusion of 5 strokes).

It is not surprising, therefore, that Roman numerals, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, … are made up of such strokes; and the English 26 alphabets can be associated with the 26 primitive geometric elements of a cube as shown in Fig.6.

Fig. 6: Association of the 26 English Alphabets system with 8 vertices (points), 12 edges (lines) and 6 phases (planes) of a cube, giving an ichi code (8:12:6).

Moreover, it is of historical interest to note that the 1854 Igbo Standard alphabets published by Lepsius had 20 alphabets which Rev. Samuel Crowther increased to 21 by adding N in 1857 for the British expedition to Igboland led by Captain Bieke. The failure of the various additions to the Igbo autography to form a geometrically closed system led to the 21st C autography initiated by Alex Animalu and co-authors under the African Multlingual Project at the Institute of African Studies of University of Ngeria, Nsukka (see, fig.7)

38 IGBO ALPHABETS

3. APPLICATIONS OF THE ICHI LINGUISTIC GEOMETRY

An important aspect of the Ichi Linguistic Geometry is that it can be applied in the manner illustrated in Figs. 8a to construct ichi mathematical equation and in Fig. 8b & c to determine the ratios (points:lines:planes) for the alphabet system of any language, such as the 28 alphabets in Arabic and Greek languages, and 30 ancient Egyptian aphabets (including the two centres of the two pair of pyramids).

Fig. 8a: In 3D, the tetrahedron defined by 4 points (WORD) = Tetrahedron defined by 6 lines (CHRIST). This is equivalent to Ichi mathematical equation for John 1 verse 1: “In the beginning was the Word, the Word was with God, the Word was God(Christ)”, p.154 TLBA.

Fig. 8b: A pair of inverted tetrahedra define the 28 Arabic Alphabets, with ichi geometric code 2x(4:6:4)=(8:12:8).

Fig. 8c: 30 Ancient Egyptian Alphabets

4. ZERO IN ICHI LINGUISTICS GEOMETRY

In Fig. 3a we have characterized the primeval (dual) pair of tetrahedra by three sets of lines forming 3N‟s (Mother[Nne], Father[Nna], Son[Nwa]). In 2D space, the geometric principle of duality allows us to represent a point in two ways, either as a “point” (per se) or “intersection of two (non-parallel) lines”, while a line is a “line” (per se) or “ join of two points”. In the (2+1)D geometry of space- time physics, a point is a “point circle” (x2+y2=t2=0), i.e., a circle of ZERO radius( t=0). This may be rewritten as intersection of two lines x = ±iy, with pure imaginary slopes (i= 1 ) which (by principle of duality) define a triangle circumscribed by a circle and inscribed in a circle: these are the two concentric circles shown below in Fig.9

Fig.9: Representation of zero (O) as a “point” circle (at zero time) in the complex xy-plane and generation of a pair of triangles or trigrams to which we shall return in Sec.6.

One may, therefore, assert that Zero is a female. It is Mother. It is Eve. It is ever in flux, appearing and disappearing from one tip of one tetrahedron to the tip of the dual tetrahedron on a common base, generating a pair of triangles or trigrams.

Inasmuch as ZERO time is represented in Fig. 9 by a line, it should not surprise the non-mathematician that linear time (t) can be transformed into circular time

( r) (see, Fig. 10) via the Mobius transformation:

Fig. 10:Transformation of line into circle with motion of O forward and O backward in time generating the X-ichi.

We may, therefore, sum up by saying that, in the beginning (“Zero” time), there was a single “point-particle” (O) coincident with its “dual point-particle” (O) and a corresponding pair of tetrahedra (symbolizing the Mother goddess) each inscribed in a sphere (physical wave that moves with the particle) and circumscribing another sphere (phase wave that moves ahead of the particle); the projecting (triangular) arms of the tetrahedra define a triagram and generate an X- ichi pattern as O freely moves forward in time and O freely moves backward in time.

This apparently completes the characterization (p.156 TLBA) of the Garden of Eden, as a location belonging to “Eternal Day” when God lived among men and fed them God-substance!

5. SYMBOLIZATION OF THE CREATION AND FATE OF ADAM

Chapter 4 of TLBA described “the creation of Adam as a work of genetic engineering” that began with the conversation of the Nephilim (creating god): “Let us make man in our own image”. Of the 16 names of God in the Bible (see Table below), only “Elohim” refers to the eternal creation.

Our interest lies, however, in the startling evidence for “genetically engineered Adam” based on the correspondence between the pentagon symbol of Adam given by the 2D “image” of a pyramid (see, Fig. 4a) and the internal molecular structure of DNA that carries the genetic code of life as shown in Fig.11.

Fig. 11: Replication of pentagon symbol of Adam in the structure of DNA that carries the genetic code of life.

How does this explain the sad fate of Adam – namely his short life? The creation of Adam corresponds to the second level of evolution involving self-replication of the tetrahedron with ichi code (4:6:4) and fusion with its replica tetrahedron into a pyramid having ichi code (5:8:5) which is not one of the five Pythagorean solids of 3D space. The third level involves a fusion of two pyramids to form the octahedron with ichi code 2x(5:8:5) = (10:16:10) which (it so happens) is one of the perfect Pythagorean solids and 10+16+10 = 36 is the number of the 20th C Igbo language polyhedron (excluding X and Q in Fig. 7). The fourth level involves a fusion of two cubes (duals of the octahedron) into the polyhedron in Fig.7 with ichi code (12:18:8) giving 12+18+8=38 as the number of the new 21st C Igbo language alphabets.

6. THE MYSTERIOUS PREHISTORY OF THE INTERNET

One of the deepest geometric-linguistic-scientific messages (TLBA Chapter 32) is the sketch of the mysterious prehistory of the Internet linking Igbo Ukwu bronze “enigmatic tyre” (or what mathematicians call a “torus”) and Philip Emeagwali‟s model of the “hyper-ball” (p.447 TLBA) shown in Fig. 12.

Emeagwali has claimed that his “hyper-ball” inspiration came from observation of the “honey comb” which (see, Fig. 13a&b) represents

Figure 13a: shows a normal mode (“honey comb”) for a linear wave equation. The solution was obtained by finite element method with triangular elements over a rectangular domain.

Figure 13b: shows a contour plot of linear mode shown in figure 13a having the “ichi” hexagram evolution pattern (see Maclin & Noel 2009)

the normal modes of a wave equation with triangular elements over a rectangular domain (A.P. Maclin and M. Noel, 2009). One can see from this that the interconnected system of hexagrams is a mathematical model of non-linear communication wave propagation associated with a pyramid built from four triangles and a square (base). A geometrical construction of Emeagwali‟s hexagrams/pentagrams from the motion of the two triangles associated with O and O characterized in Fig.9 is illustrated in Fig.14.

Fig. 14 : Construction of Emeagwali’s hexagrams from the dual particle/wave motions characterized in fig.9.

Indeed, Emeagwali‟s hyper-ball is equivalent to a torus formed by applying what solid state physicists call periodic (cyclic) boundary condition on a square lattice of such hexagrams to obtain “quantization” of the wave vector of waves propagating in such a lattice. Intriguingly, the “torus” model of the universe was derived by the celebrated British physicist – Steven Hawking – of Cavendish

Laboratory, University of Cambridge, U.K., by unifying Einstein‟s general relativity theory of gravitation and the quantum theory. The main result is that the torus model (without boundary in space and time) eliminates the “black-hole singularity” usually associated with the “Big Bang” theory of creation.

This gives meaning (in Fig. 15a) to the symbolic “snake” totem of the ancient civilization that produced the Igbo-Ukwu bronze: it is this totem that got trapped in the rectangular box totem of Medieval Christian world view imposed on African peoples by European imperialism as recounted by Chinua Achebe in the Arrow of God (1969). The toroidal African world view is celebrated by women through their ornaments (Fig.15b).

7. CONCLUSION

This paper has been propelled by the clarion call in TLBA for complementarity of opposites as a universal dual principle of nature at the very foundation of creation evident in the prevalence of the principle of duality in diverse cultures (see, Fig.16). A similar appraoch is that of F. Capra‟s The Tao of Physics (1979).

Fig. 9c: Principle of Duality in different cultures

(1) Egyptian pyramid, (2) Chinese Tao, (3) Greek Janus, (4) Jewish Star of David, and (5) Akuebilisi seed worn by a dangerous masquerade in Igboland (in Africa).

(1) Egyptian pyramid, (2) Chinese Tao, (3) Greek Janus, (4) Jewish Star of David, and (5) Akuebilisi seed worn by a dangerous masquerade in Igboland (in Africa).

Our objective has been to eliminate linguistic ambiguities inherent in the two dimensional nature of the written word by recasting the ideas in readily understood two and three dimensional geometric forms which we have called ichi linguistic geometry because it is the language used by the authors of the Ikom monoliths and Igbo-Ukwu Bronzes thousands of years ago. We have made evident the scientific underpinnings of the ichi linguistic geometry by unraveling the mystery of the Igbo-Ukwu bronze “torus”, to show how close it is to our modern view of the universe.

REFERENCES

*Achebe, Chinua, Arrow of God (Heinemann Kenya, 1969).

*Acholonu, Catherine: They Lived Before Adam (CARC Publication ISBN: 978=2579-51-10 (2009) referred to as TLBA.

*Animalu, A.O.E. and Umezinwa, W. From African Symbols to Physics (Desk Published by Ucheakonam Foundation (Nig.) Ltd) (1966).

*Animalu, A.O.E., Achufusi, G.I., Umezinwa, W. and Jeff Unaegbu, Nelson Mandela and Barack Obama African World Challenge (Ucheakonam Foundation Nig. Ltd (2009) ISBN 978 34207-7-1.

*Animalu A.O.E. and Azali, A.O. 21st C Igbo/English Primer; Animalu, A.O.E. , Otagburuagu, E.J., Abdullahi, S.Y., Lawal I. and Tivde, T. 21st C Igbo-Hausa- Yoruba-Tiv/English Primer (Ucheakonam Foundation 2009).

*Capra, F. The Tao of Physics (Fontana/Collins, 1979).

*Dan Brown, The Da Vinci Code; see also by the same author, Angels & Demons (Washinton Square Press available in paperback (2009)).

*Hwaking, S., A Brief History of Time (Bantam Books, New York (1990)).

*Maclin, A.P. and Noel, M. Nonlinear Magneto-optical Effects in Dielectrics Embedded with Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles (in Proceedings of 2nd International Seminar on Theoretical Physics and National development, July 5-8, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria: African Journal of Physics Vol. 2, (2009).

*Acholonu, Catherine: They Lived Before Adam (CARC Publication ISBN: 978=2579-51-10 (2009) referred to as TLBA.

*Animalu, A.O.E. and Umezinwa, W. From African Symbols to Physics (Desk Published by Ucheakonam Foundation (Nig.) Ltd) (1966).

*Animalu, A.O.E., Achufusi, G.I., Umezinwa, W. and Jeff Unaegbu, Nelson Mandela and Barack Obama African World Challenge (Ucheakonam Foundation Nig. Ltd (2009) ISBN 978 34207-7-1.

*Animalu A.O.E. and Azali, A.O. 21st C Igbo/English Primer; Animalu, A.O.E. , Otagburuagu, E.J., Abdullahi, S.Y., Lawal I. and Tivde, T. 21st C Igbo-Hausa- Yoruba-Tiv/English Primer (Ucheakonam Foundation 2009).

*Capra, F. The Tao of Physics (Fontana/Collins, 1979).

*Dan Brown, The Da Vinci Code; see also by the same author, Angels & Demons (Washinton Square Press available in paperback (2009)).

*Hwaking, S., A Brief History of Time (Bantam Books, New York (1990)).

*Maclin, A.P. and Noel, M. Nonlinear Magneto-optical Effects in Dielectrics Embedded with Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles (in Proceedings of 2nd International Seminar on Theoretical Physics and National development, July 5-8, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria: African Journal of Physics Vol. 2, (2009).